By Samira Hedayat

Flag Day. Armed Forces Day. Independence Day. As Americans, we celebrate dozens of patriotic holidays throughout the year. However, two of these days — Memorial Day and Veterans Day — are often confused for the other and can be easily misunderstood.

Understanding the nuances of Memorial Day vs. Veterans Day might seem confusing at first – they do both honor the military community – but a quick Google search (or a quick four-minute read of this story) will show you that these two federal holidays couldn’t be more different.

Photo credit DVIDS/Elizabeth Fraser

Family, friends, and visitors honor the fallen in Section 60 of Arlington National Cemetery, Arlington, Virginia, May 26, 2019.

Memorial Day: Honoring Those Who Died in Military Service

Memorial Day, which is celebrated on the last Monday in May, honors service members who have died in military service to the nation. The holiday has roots dating back to the post-Civil War era, when citizens would informally create spring flower memorials on the graves of fallen soldiers.

On May 5, 1866, the town of Waterloo, New York, formalized this ritual and hosted a city-wide “Decoration Day,” encouraging its citizens to create memorials on soldiers’ graves with flags and flowers. A few years later, in 1868, Gen. John A. Logan declared that the first-ever national Decoration Day should take place on May 30, as the date was a neutral day for both sides of the Civil War to honor their fallen soldiers.

On May 20 1868, over 5,000 first-ever National Decoration Day participants decorated the graves of the 20,000 Union and Confederate soldiers buried at Arlington National Cemetery. By the late 1800s, cities and communities across the United States began to observe the day and several states declared it a legal holiday.

Over the next few decades, the day transitioned from being called Decoration Day to its current name of Memorial Day.

In 1968, Congress passed the Uniform Monday Holiday Act, which established Memorial Day as the last Monday in May instead of a set calendar day. By 1971, the three-day weekend for federal employees went into full effect.

Staff Sgt. Jeffrey Hotz, leads the 338th Army Band as the drum major during the Memorial Day parade in Blue Ash, Ohio on May 27, 2019. | Photo credit DVIDS/ Sgt. 1st Class Joel Quebec

Today, unfortunately, Memorial Day is often associated with the start of summer, discount sales and cookouts with friends. But you have the power to educate those around you and take a few moments to pay tribute to the fallen while still enjoying the sunshine and outdoors. Here are a few ideas:

1) Participate in the National Moment of Remembrance at 3:00pm

2) Attend a local Memorial Day parade

3) Visit a military cemetery or memorial

4) Display the U.S. flag at your home

5) Watch the National Memorial Day Concert

Photo credit DVIDS/Senior Airman Anthony Agosti

Over 1000 flags wave in the wind for a Veterans Day weekend event on Nov. 9, 2018 in Hermitage, Tennessee.

Veterans Day: Honoring All Those Who Served in the Military

Veterans Day, a federal holiday which falls on November 11, is designated as a day to honor the 19.6 million men and women who have served in the military.

It was first observed on November 11, 1919, as Armistice Day in honor of the first anniversary of the end of World War I, which officially ended on the “eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month” in 1918. In 1926, Congress called for an annual observance of the anniversary and by 1938 it was an official federal holiday. A few decades later, in 1954, President Dwight D. Eisenhower officially changed the name of the holiday from Armistice Day to Veterans Day as it is currently known today.

Thanks to the Uniform Holiday Act of 1968, the holiday was moved from its November 11 date to a less-defined “fourth Monday in October” so workers could enjoy a long weekend. However, this move didn’t last long. In 1975, President Gerald Ford returned the solemn day back to its original November 11 to honor the global historical significance of the day.

(Fun fact: several countries around the world, including Canada and the United Kingdom, continue to celebrate a version of this holiday every November)

While it is important to thank all those who have served or are serving on a regular basis, on Veterans Day it’s especially important to take an extra moment show military members gratitude for their sacrifice. Here are some ideas, beyond simply saying “thank you for your service:”

U.S. Air Force Kadena Air Base honor guard members march in the Veteran’s Day Parade, Nov. 11, 2018 | Photo credit DVIDS/ Senior Airman Kristan Campbell

1) Attend a Veterans Day event

2) Ask about a veteran’s time in the military

3) Display the U.S. flag in your home

4) Volunteer for, or donate to, a military non-profit like the USO

5) Read a book or watch a movie about U.S. military history